Contradictions In Mental Health: Stigma, Mental Health Literacy And Disclosure (Or Not) Of A Mental Disorder Diagnosis.

  • manuel torres cubeiro ies campo san alberto
Keywords: Mental Health Literacy, Mental Disorder Stigma, disclosure of mental disorder diagnosis, medical sociology of mental illnesses

Abstract

Mental illnesses affect 25% of any given population. The literacy of human population about mental health doesn’t not much the scientific knowledge available about Mental disorders (MDs). Developed countries invest in mental health less than their 9% of their GDPs. There is a contradiction, or discrepancy, between the incidence of MD in human population and how human societies react about them. This discrepancy has long been evident in the literature of medical sociology. In this article we analyze three medical sociology related concepts that have been coined to understand this contradiction: first, mental health literacy; second, stigma of mental ailments; and finally, the disclosure (or not) of the diagnosis of a mental illness. With this article we try to solve short use of these concepts in medical sociology in Spanish.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Alegría, M., Pescosolido, B.A., Santos, D., & Vera, M. (1997). Can we conceptualize and measure continuity of care in individual episodes? The case of mental health services in Puerto Rico. Sociological Focus, 30(2), 113-129.

Alonso, J., Chatterji, S., He, Y., & Organization, W.H. (2013). The Burdens of Mental Disorders: Global Perspectives from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Angermeyer, M.C., & Matschinger, H. (1994). Lay beliefs about schizophrenic disorder: the results of a population survey in Germany. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89(s382), 39-45.

Angermeyer, M.C., & Matschinger, H. (1997). Social distance towards the mentally ill: results of representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany. Psychological medicine, 27(01), 131-141.

Angermeyer, M.C., Van der Auwera, S., Matschinger, H., Carta, M.G., Baumeister, S.E., & Schomerus, G. (2016). The public debate on psychotropic medication and changes in attitudes 1990–2011. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience, 266(2), 165-172.

Barry, C.L., McGinty, E.E., Pescosolido, B.A., & Goldman, H.H. (2014). Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 65(10), 1269-1272.

Becker, H.S. (1971). Los extraños. Sociología de la desviación. Buenos Aires: Tiempo contemporáneo.

Becker, H.S. (1973). Outsiders: studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.

Deci, P., McDonel, E.C., Semke, J., Hadley, T.R., Hogan, M., Dias, J. K., … Wright, E. R. (1997). Downsizing state psychiatric hospitals. In: Henggeler, S.W & Santos, A.B. (Eds) Innovative Approaches for Difficult-to-treat Populations. (pp. 371-394) Washington: American Psychiatric Press.

Evans-Lacko, S., Little, K., Meltzer, H., Rose, D., Rhydderch, D., Henderson, C., & Thornicroft, G. (2010). Development and psychometric properties of the mental health knowledge schedule. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(7), 440-448.

Fallon Romero, M., & Luna Ruíz-Cabello, A. (2012). Alfabetización en salud; concepto y dimensiones. Proyecto europeo de alfabetización en salud. Revista de Comunicación y Salud, 2(2), 91-98.

Fresán Orellana, A., Robles García, R., Martínez López, N., & Vargas-Huicochea, I. (2012). Alfabetización sobre esquizofrenia para estudiantes de medicina. Salud y ciencia, 19(3), 220-223.

Goffman, E. (1972). Internados. Ensayos sobre la situación social de los enfermos mentales. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu.

Goffman, E. (1980). Estigma. La identidad deteriorada. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu.

Griffiths, K.M., Christensen, H., & Jorm, A.F. (2008). Predictors of depression stigma. BMC psychiatry, 8 (1), 1.

Griffiths, K.M., Christensen, H., & Jorm, A.F. (2009). Mental health literacy as a function of remoteness of residence: an Australian national study. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 92.

Hadlaczky, G., Hökby, S., Mkrtchian, A., Carli, V., & Wasserman, D. (2014). Mental Health First Aid is an effective public health intervention for improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour: A meta-analysis. International Review of Psychiatry, 26(4), 467-475.

Harkness, S.K., Kroska, A., & Pescosolido, B.A. (2016). The Self-Stigma of Psychiatric Patients: Implications for Identities, Emotions, and the Life Course. In: 50 Years After Deinstitutionalization: Mental Illness in Contemporary Communities (pp. 207-233). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Jorm, A. F. (2000). Mental health literacy. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(5), 396-401.

Jorm, A.F., Korten, A.E., Jacomb, P.A., Christensen, H., Rodgers, B., & Pollitt, P. (1997). «Mental health literacy»: a survey of the public’s ability to recognise mental disorders and their beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment. The Medical Journal of Australia, 166(4), 182-186.

Jorm, A.F. (2012). Mental health literacy: empowering the community to take action for better mental health. The American Psychologist, 67(3), 231-243.

Jorm, A.F. (2015). Why We Need the Concept of «Mental Health Literacy». Health Communication, 30(12), 1166-1168.

Kelly, C. M., Jorm, A. F., & Wright, A. (2007). Improving mental health literacy as a strategy to facilitate early intervention for mental disorders. Med J Aust, 187(7 Suppl), S26-30.

Kikuzawa, S., Olafsdottir, S., & Pescosolido, B.A. (2008). Similar pressures, different contexts: Public attitudes toward government intervention for health care in 21 nations. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 49(4), 385-399.

Kutcher, S., Wei, Y., & Coniglio, C. (2016). Mental Health Literacy Past, Present, and Future. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(3), 154-158.

Link, B.G., Phelan, J. C., Bresnahan, M., Stueve, A., & Pescosolido, B.A. (1999). Public conceptions of mental illness: labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance. American journal of public health, 89(9), 1328-1333.

Loureiro, L.M., Jorm, A.F., Mendes, A.C., Santos, J.C., Ferreira, R.O., & Pedreiro, A.T. (2013). Mental health literacy about depression: a survey of portuguese youth. BMC Psychiatry, 13.

Luhmann, N. (2007). La sociedad de la sociedad. Mexico: Universidad Iberoamericana - Herder.

Martin, J.K., Pescosolido, B.A., & Tuch, S.A. (2000). Of fear and loathing: the role of disturbing behavior, labels, and causal attributions in shaping public attitudes toward people with mental illness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41 (2): 208-223.

McGinty, E. E., Goldman, H. H., Pescosolido, B., & Barry, C. L. (2015). Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination. Social Science & Medicine 126, 73-85.

Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad. (2014). Plan Estratégico CIBERSAM (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental) 2014-2016. MEC: Madrid.

Novins, D.K., Spicer, P., Fickenscher, A., & Pescosolido, B. (2012). Pathways to care: Narratives of American Indian adolescents entering substance abuse treatment. Social Science & Medicine, 74(12), 2037-2045.

Nutbeam, D., & Kickbusch, I. (2000). Advancing health literacy: a global challenge for the 21st century. Health Promotion International, 15(3), 183-184.

OECD. (2014). Making Mental Health Count. Focus on Health, pp. 1-8.

Olafsdottir, S., & Pescosolido, B.A. (2009). Drawing the line: The cultural cartography of utilization recommendations for mental health problems. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50(2), 228-244.

Olafsdottir, S., & Pescosolido, B.A. (2011). Constructing illness: How the public in eight Western nations respond to a clinical description of «schizophrenia». Social Science & Medicine, 73(6), 929-938.

Olesen, J., Gustavsson, A., Svensson, M., Wittchen, H.U., & Jönsson, B. (2012). The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe. European Journal of Neurology, 19(1), 155-162.

Parés-Badell, O., Barbaglia, G., Jerinic, P., Gustavsson, A., Salvador-Carulla, L., & Alonso, J. (2014). Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Spain. PLoS ONE, 9(8), 1054- 71.

Pavalko, E. K., Harding, C. M., & Pescosolido, B. A. (2007). Mental illness careers in an era of change. Social Problems, 54(4), 504-522.

Perry, B. L., Pullen, E., & Pescosolido, B. A. (2016). At the intersection of lay and professional social networks: how community ties shape perceptions of mental health treatment providers. Global Mental Health, 3, e3.

Perry, B., & Pescosolido, B. (2011). Children, culture and mental illness: public knowledge and stigma toward childhood problems. The SAGE Handbook of mental health and illness, SAGE: London. 202-217.

Perry, Brea L., Pescosolido, B. A., Martin, J. K., McLeod, J. D., & Jensen, P. S. (2007). Comparison of public attributions, attitudes, and stigma in regard to depression among children and adults. IN Psychiatric Services. 58 (5): 632-635.

Pescosolido, B. (1992a). Beyond Rational Choice: The Social Dynamics of How People Seek Help. American Journal of Sociology, 97(4), 1092-1138.

Pescosolido, B. (1992b). Illness Careers and Network Ties: A Conceptual Model of Utilization and Compliance. Advances in Medical Sociology, 2, 161-184.

Pescosolido, B.A. (1993). Society and the balance of professional dominance and patient autonomy in medical care. Ind. LJ, 69, 1115-20.

Pescosolido, B.A. (2013). The Public Stigma of Mental Illness: What Do We Think; What Do We Know; What Can We Prove? Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 54 (1): 1-21.

Pescosolido, B.A. (2015). Erving Goffman: the moral career of stigma and mental illness. En The Palgrave Handbook of Social Theory in Health, Illness and Medicine Springer: Palgrave, pp. 273-286.

Pescosolido, B.A. (2016). The Beginning of the End? Deploying Rigorous Research in Real-World Settings to Reduce Stigma. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(5), 353-354.

Pescosolido, B.A., & Boyer, C.A. (1999). How do people come to use mental health services? current knowledge and changing perspectives. In: A Handbook for the Study of Mental Health: Social A.V. Horwitz and T.L. Scheid Contexts, Theories, and Systems pp. 392-411. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pescosolido, B. A., Boyer, C. A., & Medina, T. R. (2013). The social dynamics of responding to mental health problems. En Handbook of the sociology of mental health; Springer: Holanda; pp. 505-524.

Pescosolido, B. A., Fettes, D. L., Martin, J. K., Monahan, J., & McLeod, J. D. (2007). Perceived dangerousness of children with mental health problems and support for coerced treatment. Psychiatric Services. 58(5), 619-625.

Pescosolido, B.A., Figert, A., & Lubell, K. (1996). Professional Work in Public and Private Settings: The Use and Evaluation of the DSM in Psychiatric Units. Current Research on Occupations and Professions, 9, 31-52.

Pescosolido, B.A., Gardner, C.B., & Lubell, K.M. (1998a). How people get into mental health services: Stories of choice, coercion and «muddling through» from «first-timers». Social science & medicine, 46(2), 275-286.

Pescosolido, B.A., Gardner, C.B., & Lubell, K.M. (1998b). How people get into mental health services: Stories of choice, coercion and «muddling through» from «first-timers». Social science & medicine, 46(2), 275-286.

Pescosolido, B.A., Jensen, P.S., Martin, J.K., Perry, B.L., Olafsdottir, S., & Fettes, D. (2008). Public knowledge and assessment of child mental health problems: findings from the National Stigma Study-Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(3), 339-349.

Pescosolido, B.A., & Kronenfeld, J.J. (1995). Health, illness, and healing in an uncertain era: challenges from and for medical sociology. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, (extra issue) 5-33.

Pescosolido, B.A., & Martin, J.K. (2015). The stigma complex. Annual review of sociology, 41, 87-116.

Pescosolido, B.A., Martin, J.K., Lang, A., & Olafsdottir, S. (2008). Rethinking theoretical approaches to stigma: A framework integrating normative influences on stigma (FINIS). Social science & medicine, 67(3), 431-440.

Pescosolido, B.A., Martin, J.K., Long, J.S., Medina, T.R., Phelan, J.C., & Link, B.G. (2010). «A disease like any other»? A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(11), 1321-1330.

Pescosolido, B.A., Martin, J.K., Long, J.S., Olafsdottir, S., Kafadar, K., & Medina, T.R. (2015). The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the «Cultural Myth of Stigma» Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox? American Journal of Sociology, 121(3), 783-825.

Pescosolido, B.A., Medina, T.R., Martin, J.K., & Long, J.S. (2013). The «backbone» of stigma: identifying the global core of public prejudice associated with mental illness. American journal of public health, 103(5), 853-860.

Pescosolido, B.A., & Olafsdottir, S. (2013). Beyond dichotomies: confronting the complexity of how and why individuals come or do not come to mental health care. World Psychiatry, 12(3), 269-271.

Pescosolido, B.A., Olafsdottir, S., Martin, J.K., & Long, J. S. (2008). Cross-cultural aspects of the stigma of mental illness. IN J. Arboleda Flores and N. Sartorius Understanding the stigma of mental illness: Theory and interventions, 19-36; London: Wiley and Sons.

Pescosolido, B.A., Perry, B.L., Long, J.S., Martin, J.K., Nurnberger Jr,J.I., & Hesselbrock, V. (2008). Under the influence of genetics: how transdisciplinarity leads us to rethink social pathways to illness. AJS; American journal of sociology, 114, S171.

Pescosolido, B.A., Tuch, S.A., & Martin, J.K. (2001). The profession of medicine and the public: examining Americans’ changing confidence in physician authority from the beginning of the’health care crisis’ to the era of health care reform. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42 (1): 1-16.

Pescosolido, B.A., Wright, E.R., & Sullivan, W.P. (1995). Communities of care: A theoretical perspective on case management models in mental health. Advances in medical sociology, 6, 37-80.

Reavley, N.J., Morgan, A.J., & Jorm, A.F. (2017). Disclosure of mental health problems: findings from an Australian national survey. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, (10) : 1-11.

Reavley, N.J., Morgan, A.J., & Jorm, A.F. (2014). Development of scales to assess mental health literacy relating to recognition of and interventions for depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia/psychosis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 48(1), 61-69.

Romaní, O. (2010). Jóvenes y riesgos: unas relaciones ineludibles?. Barcelona: Bellaterra.

Scheff, T.J. (1975a). Labeling Madness. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Scheff, T.J. (1975b). The labeling theory of Mental illness. En T. J. Scheff (Ed.), Labeling Madness (pp. 21-33). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Simonds, S.K. (1974). Health education as social policy. Health Education Research, 2, 1-25.

Sorensen, K., Van den Broucke, S., Fullam, J., Doyle, G., Pelikan, J., Slonska, Z., … European, (HLS-EU) Consortium Health Literacy Project. (2012). Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 80.

Sturgeon, S. (2006). Promoting mental health as an essential aspect of health promotion. Health Promotion International, 21(suppl 1), 36-41.

Thornicroft, G. (2006). Shunned: discrimination against people with mental illness. Geneva: Oxford.

Thornicroft, G., Rose, D., & Kassam, A. (2007). Discrimination in health care against people with mental illness. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(2), 113-122.

Thornicroft, G., Rose, D., & Mehta, N. (2010). Discrimination against people with mental illness: what can psychiatrists do? Advances in psychiatric treatment, 16(1), 53-59.

Tones, K. (2002). Health literacy: new wine in old bottles? Health Education Research, 17(3), 287-290.

Whitley, J., Smith, J.D., & Vaillancourt, T. (2013). Promoting mental health literacy among educators: Critical in school-based prevention and intervention. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28 (1): 56-70.
Published
03/05/2018