South Korea in Reconstructing Masculinity as Brand Image of the State’s Economic Diplomacy

  • Nur Azizah Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
  • Ainun Dwiyanti Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
Keywords: Soft masculinity; Korean Pop (K-Pop); Economic diplomacy; South Korea.

Abstract

  By applying the theory of Economic Diplomacy by Rana and Chatterjee, Public Diplomacy by McClory and State Identity by Maxym Alexandrov, the main purpose of this study was to analyze the reasons behind South Korea’s promotion of soft masculinity through their means of public diplomacy, such as K-Pop and Korean drama. Particularly in South Korea, ideas about how to look good as ‘a man’ are changing attitudes and also influencing the world.  The study has applied phenomenology methodology and qualitative research methods to understand the contemporary international relations phenomenon which are soft masculinity and economic diplomacy. The unit of analysis examined as the subject is ‘South Korean government’ and the unit of explanation were the driving factors of why South Korea promotes soft masculinity. The data were taken from the secondary sources such as various books, journals, reports, as well as documents from different relevant websites and a comprehensive and systematic analysis were applied.  It was found that soft masculinity as an image that is promoted through the public diplomacy tool of South Korea, such as K-Pop creates the appeal of the country towards the global audience as it is a rarity. South Korea has become the front liner of soft masculinity by incorporating the image through its economic diplomacy. This research further reveals that South Korea promotes soft masculinity in its K-Pop product because the country is utilizing the uniqueness of soft masculinity as its brand image to enhance its economic diplomacy for its cosmetic industry

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Nur Azizah, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta

 

 

References

Alexandrov, M. (2003). The Concept of State Identity in International Relations:A Theoretical Analysis. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 10(1), 33-46. Retrieved December 2020, from https://ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/files/public/1/14409/20141016121246211432/JIDC_10_01_03_Alexandrov.pdf

Asher, S. (2018, September 5). Flowerboys and the appeal of 'soft masculinity' in South Korea. Retrieved from BBC News: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-42499809

Chung, G. (2015, August 19). How South Korea's AmorePacific Became One Of The World's Most Innovative Companies. Retrieved from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/gracechung/2015/08/19/how-south-koreas-amorepacific-became-one-of-the-worlds-most-innovative-companies/#450bec5d2b2b

Elfving-Hwang, J. (2011). Not So Soft After All: Kkonminam Masculinities in Contemporary South Korean Popular Culture. KSAA 7th Biennial Conference (p. 21). Sydney: The Korean Studies Association of Australasia (KSAA). Retrieved August 03, 2020, from https://research-repository.uwa.edu.au/en/publications/not-so-soft-after-all-kkonminam-masculinities-in-contemporary-sou

Euromonitor International. (2016). K-Pop, K-Beauty and More: Exporting Korean Culture and Business. Euromonitor International.

Haddad, H. (2019, September 26). Men In Makeup: K-Pop Male Celebrities Are Changing The Perception Of Male Beauty. Retrieved from E!Online: https://www.eonline.com/ap/news/1076719/men-in-makeup-korean-male-celebrities-are-changing-the-perception-of-male-beauty

Jung, S. (2011). Korean Masculinities and Transcultural Consumption. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.

Korea's Trade-Investment Promotion Agency. (2019). Investment Opportunities in Korea: Beauty & Cosmetics. Invest Korea.

Lee, S. (2019, November 12). How open is Korea to men’s makeup? Retrieved January 10, 2020, from The Jakarta Post: https://www.thejakartapost.com/life/2019/11/11/how-open-is-korea-to-mens-makeup.html

Leigh, T. (2018, August 27). Chanel Debuts Revolutionary Makeup Line For Men: 'Boy De Chanel'. Retrieved December 2020, from Forbes: https://www.forbes.com/sites/tiffanyleigh/2018/08/27/chanel-debuts-boy-de-chanel-male-makeup-collection/?sh=b3c5662e3c58

Lim, L. (2018, November 7). How are South Korean cosmetics companies making men around the world look better? Retrieved from Augustman: https://www.augustman.com/sg/style/grooming/grooming-march-2020/

Louie, K. (2017). Asian Masculinity Studies in the West: From Minority Status to Soft Power. Asia Pacific Perspectives, 15(1), 4-13. Retrieved from https://www.usfca.edu/center-asia-pacific/perspectives/v15n1/louie

Lovley, J. (2018, September 11). Korea’s Flower Boys Are Breaking Down Masculinity Norms. Retrieved September 2019, from Study Breaks: https://studybreaks.com/thoughts/korea-flower-boy-breaks-masculinity/

McClory, J. (2019). The Soft Power 30: A Global Ranking of Soft Power. Portland: USC Center on Public DIplomacy.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2018). 2018 Diplomatic White Paper. Seoul: Republic of Korea Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Mintel Press Team. (2017, April 7). A bright future: South Korea ranks among the top 10 beauty markets globally. Retrieved from Mintel : https://www.mintel.com/press-centre/beauty-and-personal-care/a-bright-future-south-korea-ranks-among-the-top-10-beauty-markets-globally

Nature Republic. (2020, January 16). 네이처리퍼블릭, EXO와 함께 글로벌 색조 캠페인 전개. Retrieved from Nature Republic: https://www.naturerepublic.com/brand/news_view.php?bbs_ix=00000338

Nye, J. S. (2008, March). Public Diplomacy and Soft Power. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(Public Diplomacy in a Changing World ), 94-109. Retrieved September 1, 2019, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/25097996

Patterson, D., & Choi, J. (2018). Diplomacy, trade, and South Korea’s rise to international influence. International Area Studies Review, 21(I), 9-27. doi:10.1177/2233865917740726

Rana, K., & Chatterjee, B. (2011). Economic Diplomacy: India’s Experience. CUTS International.

Rapp, J. (2020, March 3). South Korean men lead the world's male beauty market. Will the West ever follow suit? Retrieved from CNN: https://edition.cnn.com/style/article/south-korea-male-beauty-market-chanel/index.html

Romano, A. (2018, February 26). How K-pop became a global phenomenon. Retrieved August 26, 2019, from Vox: https://www.vox.com/culture/2018/2/16/16915672/what-is-kpop-history-explained

Schoettli, U. (2019). Will the South Korean Success Story Continue? Retrieved from Austrian Economics Center: https://www.austriancenter.com/will-south-korean-success-story-continue/

SMTOWN and STORE. (2019, April 05). Stylist &P!ck: EXO's Makeup Artist Hyun Yoonsu. Retrieved from SMTOWN and STORE: https://www.smtownandstore.com/board/gallery/read.html?no=270&board_no=8&category_no=2&cate_no=2&category_no=2

Soompi. (2020, February 8). February Boy Group Brand Reputation Rankings Announced. Retrieved from Soompi: https://www.soompi.com/article/1381876wpp/february-boy-group-brand-reputation-rankings-announced-2

Wibben, A. (2004). Feminist International Relations: Old Debates and New Directions. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 97-114. Retrieved February 2020, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/24590524

Yonhap News Agency. (2019, June 29). Trump meets EXO. Retrieved from Yonhap News Agency: https://en.yna.co.kr/view/PYH20190629082700320?section=search

Yoo, S.-C. (2005). 한류”의 비밀 [The Secret of Hallyu]. Seoul: Saengagui Namu.
Published
07/11/2021