Social Capital and Social Trust: The State's Response in Facing the Spread of COVID-19 in Indonesia


  • Tawakkal Baharuddin Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
  • Sjafri Sairin Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
  • Hasse Jubba Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
  • Zuly Qodir Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
  • Achmad Nurmandi Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta
  • Mega Hidayati Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta



COVID-19; Policy; Strategy; Social capital; Social trust.


The main purpose of this study was to analyze the steps taken by the Indonesian government to implement different policies for its fight against COVID-19. The Indonesian government has taken various measures, most pertinently Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB), to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 cases. This study used a qualitative approach as a contextual study that sought to emphasize the meaning of a phenomenon in a COVID-19 pandemic situation. The purpose of qualitative research was to make a complex picture. Data analyzed were obtained from various sources, including the internet, such as online media and social media, and related literature.  Data were collected utilizing the Ncapture for the Nvivo feature. The time taken for analysis was from March to May 2020. In conducting the analysis, this study also used Nvivo 12 Plus software. This research reveals that the government policies, most importantly Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB), triggered a decline in the public confidence. The increase in the number of positive cases of COVID-19 in various regions up to May 2020 has made government policies deemed not running optimally. Further, the crisis of confidence affects the community’s participatory pattern in combating the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Findings from this research suggest the need for a study on how government policies can work well and also supported by the public trust.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Tawakkal Baharuddin, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta




Aditya, J. I. (2020). Indonesia Masuk Prioritas Korsel dalam Ekspor Alat Tes Virus Corona. KOMPAS.Com. Retrieved from
Banerjee, R. (2016). Corruption, Norm violation and decay in social capital. Journal of Public Economics, 137, 14–27.
BNPB. (2020). Tugas dan Fungsi BNPB. Bnpb.Go.Id. Retrieved from
Bourdieu, P. (1986). THE FORMS OF CAPITAL.
Burt, R. S. (2000). The network structure of social capital. Research in Organizational Behavior, 22, 345–423.
Campbell, C., Cornish, F., & Mclean, C. (2004). Social capital, participation and the perpetuation of health inequalities: obstacles to African-Caribbean participation in “partnerships” to improve mental health. Ethnicity & Health, 9(3), 305–327.
Carrasco, M. A., & Bilal, U. (2016). A sign of the times: To have or to be? Social capital or social cohesion? Social Science and Medicine, 159(May 2016), 127–131.
Channappanavar, R., & Perlman, S. (2017). Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology. Seminars in Immunopathology, 39(5), 529–539.
Chow, W. S., & Chan, L. S. (2008). Social network, social trust and shared goals in organizational knowledge sharing. Information and Management, 45(7), 458–465.
CNN Indonesia. (2020a). Lonjakan Drastis Kasus Corona pada Mei 2020. CNNIndonesia.Com. Retrieved from
CNN Indonesia. (2020b). Presiden China Telepon Jokowi, Siap Kerja Sama Lawan Corona. CNN Indonesia. Retrieved from
Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. The American Journal of Socilogy, 94, 95–120. Retrieved from
Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Harvard university press.
Damarjati, D. (2020). Data Corona Pemerintah Pusat dan Pemprov Berbeda, Kok Bisa? DetikNews. Retrieved from
De Juan, A., & Pierskalla, J. H. (2016). Civil war violence and political trust: Microlevel evidence from Nepal. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 33(1), 67–88. (2020). RI Dorong Perkuat Kerja Sama Ekonomi di ASEAN Redam Dampak Corona. Retrieved from
Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues And The Creation Of Prosperity. New York.
Goddard, R. D. (2003). Relational networks, social trust, and norms: A social capital perspective on students’ chances of academic success. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25(1), 59–74.
Gugus Tugas Indonesia. (2020). Satgas Penanganan COVID-19. Covid.19.Go.Id. Retrieved from
Hamilton, K., Helliwell, J. F., & Woolcock, M. (2016). Social Capital, Trust And Well-Being In The Evaluation Of Wealth. National Bureau Of Economic Research, 53(9), 1689–1699.
Hatak, I., Lang, R., & Rößl, D. (2016). Trust, Social Capital, and the Coordination of Relationships Between the Members of Cooperatives: A Comparison Between Member-Focused Cooperatives and Third-Party-Focused Cooperatives. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 27(3), 1218–1241. Retrieved from
Hermansyah. (2020). Presiden umumkan kasus coronavirus pertama di Indonesia. Alinea.Id. Retrieved from
Huysman, M., & Wulf, V. (2004). Social Capital and Information Technology. In Journal of Documentation. Retrieved from
Ihsanuddin. (2020a). 9 Kebijakan Ekonomi Jokowi di Tengah Pandemi Covid-19: Penangguhan Cicilan hingga Relaksasi Pajak. Kompas.Com. Retrieved from
Ihsanuddin. (2020b). Jokowi Akhirnya Blak-blakan Soal Alasan Tak Mau Lockdown. Kompas.Com. Retrieved from
Ishiyama, J., Mezvrishvili, L., & Zhgenti, N. (2018). An oasis of democracy in an authoritarian sea? Civil society, social, and institutional trust in Georgia. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 51(1), 19–26.
Itaiwi, A. M. K., Ahmad, M. S., & Tang, A. Y. C. (2018). Norm’s trust model to evaluate norms benefit awareness for norm adoption in an open agent community. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 9(2), 54–61.
Johnson, C. A. (2004). Choosing people: The role of social capital in information seeking behaviour. Information Research, 10(1).
Kamil, I. (2020). Indonesia Dinilai Kehilangan Golden Time Antisipasi Penyebaran Covid-19. Kompas.Com. Retrieved from
Katungi, E., Edmeades, S., & Smale, M. (2008). Gender, social capital and information exchange in rural Uganda. Journal of International Development, 20(1), 35–52.
Lin, N. (1999). Building a Network Theory of Social Capital. Connections, 22(1), 28–51.
Lins, K. V., Servaes, H., & Tamayo, A. (2017). Social Capital, Trust, and Firm Performance: The Value of Corporate Social Responsibility during the Financial Crisis. Journal of Finance, 72(4), 1785–1824. (2020). Antisipasi virus corona, Pemerintah siapkan 100 rumah sakit rujukan. Retrieved from
Liu, G., Wang, Y., & Orgun, M. A. (2010). Optimal social trust path selection in complex social networks. Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 10, 1391–1398. (2020). RI-Jepang Sepakat Kerjasama Cegah Penyebaran Virus Corona. Retrieved from
Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. (2020). Dashboard Kasus COVID-19 di Indonesia. Website. Retrieved from
Mou, Y., & Lin, C. A. (2017). The impact of online social capital on social trust and risk perception. Asian Journal of Communication, 27(6), 563–581.
Mukaromah, V. F. (2020). Melihat peningkatan kasus covid-19 di indonesia dari bulan ke bulan. KOMPAS.Com. Retrieved from
Nenadovic, M., & Epstein, G. (2016). The relationship of social capital and fishers’ participation in multi-level governance arrangements. Environmental Science and Policy, 61, 77–86.
Newton, K. (2001). Trust, social capital, civil society, and democracy. International Political Science Review, 22(2), 201–214.
Pranita, E. (2020). Pesan WHO untuk Indonesia dalam Hadapi Corona, Prioritaskan Kesehatan. Retrieved from
Pret, T., Shaw, E., & Dodd, Sarah Drakopoulou. (2016). Painting the full picture: The conversion of economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship, 34(8), 1004–1027.
Pulla, V., Jaysawal, N., & Saha, S. (2019). Challenges and Dilemmas of Civil Society movements in India. Asian Social Work and Policy Review, 13(2), 169–178.
Purnamasari, D. M. (2020). Mendagri Minta Seluruh Kepala Daerah Tunda Perjalanan ke Luar Negeri. KOMPAS.Com. Retrieved from
Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Putnam, R. D. (2004). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and schuster.
Riaz, F., Zafar, M. I., Maann, A. A., & Ali, T. (2010). Parent’S Cultural Capital and Its Effects on Children Academic Performance. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 47(2), 157–161.
Roche, A., Goto, K., Zhao, Y., & Wolff, C. (2015). Bonding and Bridging Social and Cultural Capitals: Perceived Factors Associated With Family Eating Practices Among Hmong, Latino, and White Mothers and Fathers. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47(6), 540-547.e1.
Romania, V. (2020). Interactional anomie? Imaging social distance after COVID-19: A goffmanian perspective. Sociologica, 14(1), 51–66.
Sachs, J. (2015). Investing in social capital. In J. Helliwell, R. Layard, & J. Sachs (Eds.), WORLD HAPPINESS REPORT 2015 (pp. 152–166). Retrieved from
Saffer, A. J. (2019). Fostering social capital in an international multi-stakeholder issue network. Public Relations Review, 45(2), 282–296.
Schoon, I., Cheng, H., Gale, C. R., Batty, G. D., & Deary, I. J. (2010). Social status, cognitive ability, and educational attainment as predictors of liberal social attitudes and political trust. Intelligence, 38(1), 144–150.
Tan, W., Zhao, X., Ma, X., Wang, W., Niu, P., Xu, W., Wu, G. (2020). A Novel Coronavirus Genome Identified in a Cluster of Pneumonia Cases — Wuhan, China 2019−2020. China CDC Weekly, 2(4), 61–62.
Task Force for the Acceleration of Handling. (2020). Update Data Link Website Terkait Penanganan COVID-19. Retrieved from website:
Teymoori, A., Bastian, B., & Jetten, J. (2017). Towards a Psychological Analysis of Anomie. Political Psychology, 38(6), 1009–1023.
Thertina, M. R. (2020). Bos who telepon jokowi sepakati kerja sama tangani corona. Katadata.Co.Id. Retrieved from
Ureña, R., Kou, G., Dong, Y., Chiclana, F., & Herrera-Viedma, E. (2019). A review on trust propagation and opinion dynamics in social networks and group decision making frameworks. Information Sciences, 478, 461–475.
Weiss, S. R., & Leibowitz, J. L. (2011). Coronavirus pathogenesis. In Advances in Virus Research (1st ed., Vol. 81).
Whiteley, P. F. (2015). Social Capital. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition.
Yüksek, D. A. (2018). Evaluating the Importance of Social Capital for the Conversion of the Forms of Capital: A Critical Approach to the Bourdieusian Model. Gaziantep University Journal of Social Sciences, 17(3), 1090–1106.
Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., Tan, W. (2020). A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(8), 727–733.




How to Cite

Baharuddin, T., Sairin, S., Jubba, H., Qodir, Z., Nurmandi, A., & Hidayati, M. (2021). Social Capital and Social Trust: The State’s Response in Facing the Spread of COVID-19 in Indonesia. Sociología Y Tecnociencia, 11(2), 23–47.

Most read articles by the same author(s)