Challenges and opportunities of maker culture for the digitalization of Spanish society




responsible digitalization, makers, innovation studies, makkerspaces, digital cultures


The popularization of the "maker culture" has facilitated the emergence of various spaces worldwide that facilitate the dissemination of knowledge and skills associated with emerging technologies. This article analyzes them with special emphasis on the Spanish territory. Focusing on two institutionalization examples of this type of spaces (Ikaslab Sarea and Xarxa d'Ateneus de Fabricació), we explore the opportunities and challenges they present for citizen empowerment. We argue that the institutionalization of these spaces should move away from technocentric approaches and bet on a model based on the development of skills, values and experiences that contribute to a responsible digitization.


Download data is not yet available.


Autor/a (2016)

Autor/a (2018)

Autor/a (2019)

Autor/a (2022)

Anderson, C. (2012). Makers: the new industrial revolution. Random House.

Atkinson, P. (2006). Do It Yourself: Democracy and Design. Journal of Design History, 19(1), 1–10.

Benkler, Y. (2006). The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. Yale University Press.

Blok, V., & Lemmens, P. (2015). The Emerging Concept of Responsible Innovation. Three Reasons Why It Is Questionable and Calls for a Radical Transformation of the Concept of Innovation. In B.-J. Koops, I. Oosterlaken, H. Romijn, T. Swierstra, & J. van den Hoven (Eds.), Responsible Innovation 2: Concepts, Approaches, and Applications (pp. 19–35). Springer.

Buechley, L., & Hill, B. M. (2010). LilyPad in the wild: how hardware’s long tail is supporting new engineering and design communities. DIS ’10 Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, 199–207.

Burke, L. M., & McNeill, J. B. (2011). “Educate to innovate”: How the Obama plan for STEM education falls short. In Backgrounder (Issue 2504).

Cavalcanti, G. (2013). Is it a Hackerspace, Makerspace, TechShop, or FabLab? Make.

Corona-Rodríguez, J.-M. (2018). De la alfabetización a los alfabetismos : aprendizaje y participación DIY de Fans y Makers mexicanos. Comunicación y Sociedad, 33, 139–169.

Corsini, L., Aranda-Jan, C. B., & Moultrie, J. (2019). Using digital fabrication tools to provide humanitarian and development aid in low-resource settings. Technology in Society, 58(February), 101117.

Corsini, L., Dammicco, V., & Moultrie, J. (2021). Frugal innovation in a crisis: the digital fabrication maker response to COVID-19. R and D Management, 51(2), 195–210.

Diaz, J., Tomàs, M., & Lefebvre, S. (2021). Are public makerspaces a means to empowering citizens? The case of Ateneus de Fabricació in Barcelona. Telematics and Informatics, 59.

Dougherty, D. (2012). The Maker Movement. Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 7(3), 11–14.

Elena García-Ruiz, M., & Lena-Acebo, F. J. (2019). Fablab movement: Research design by mixed methods. OBETS, 14(2), 373–406.

García-Sáez, C. (2016). Orígenes de la red española de fab labs. Experimenta, 72.

Halverson, E. R., & Sheridan, K. (2014). The Maker Movement in Education. Harvard Educational Review, 84(4), 495–504.

Haring, K. (2008). Ham Radio´s Technical Culture. The MIT Press.

Himanen, P. (2002). La ética del hacker y el espíritu de la era de la información. Destino.

Irie, N. R., Hsu, Y. C., & Ching, Y. H. (2018). Makerspaces in Diverse Places: A Comparative Analysis of Distinctive National Discourses Surrounding the Maker Movement and Education in Four Countries. TechTrends.

Kuznetsov, S., & Paulos, E. (2010). Rise of the Expert Amateur : DIY Projects , Communities , and Cultures. Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries, 295–304.

Levy, S. (2010). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. In O’Reilly. Dell Publishing.

Lindtner, S. (2015). Hacking with Chinese Characteristics: The Promises of the Maker Movement against China’s Manufacturing Culture. Science, Technology & Human Values, 40(5), 1–26.

Lindtner, S., & Li, D. (2012). Created in China: The Makings of China’s Hackerspace Community. Interactions, 19, 18–22.

Martínez Toran, M. (2016). Open Design y Makerspaces en España. Experimenta, 72.

Morozov, E. (2014). Making It. The New Yorker.

Niaros, V., Kostakis, V., & Drechsler, W. (2017). Making (in) the Smart City: The Emergence of Makerspaces. Telematics and Informatics.

Ramella, F., & Manzo, C. (2018). Into the crisis: Fab Labs – a European story. The Sociological Review, 66(2), 341–364.

Rayna, T., & Striukova, L. (2021). Fostering skills for the 21st century: The role of Fab labs and makerspaces. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 164.

Romero-Frías, E., & Robinson-García, N. (2017). Laboratorios sociales en Universidades: Innovación e impacto en Medialab UGR. Comunicar, 51(XXV), 29–38. |

Rosa, P., Ferretti, F., Guimarães Pereira, Â., Panella, F., & Wanner, M. (2017). Overview of the Maker Movement in the European Union (Issue December).

Ryan, G. W., & Bernard, H. R. (2003). Techniques to Identify Themes. Field Methods, 15(1), 85–109.

Silverman, D. (2006). Qualitative Research. Theory, Method and Practice (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.

Sivek, S. C. (2011). “We Need a Showing of All Hands”: Technological Utopianism in MAKE Magazine. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 35, 187–209.

Smith, A., Fressoli, M., Abrol, D., Arond, E., & Ely, A. (2017). Grassroots Innovation Movements. Routledge.

Vuorikari, R., Ferrari, A., & Punie, Y. (2019). Makerspaces for Education and Training.

Whelan, T. (2018). We Are Not All Makers : The Paradox of Plurality In The Maker Movement. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Conference Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems, 75–80.




How to Cite

Tabarés, R., Bartolome Campino, T., & García Valbuena, J. (2022). Challenges and opportunities of maker culture for the digitalization of Spanish society. Sociología Y Tecnociencia, 12(2), 206–227.