Overtourism in Indonesia after the COVID-19 Pandemic: Social Psychology Perspective

Authors

  • Muhammad Yamin Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
  • Isran Kamal Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Ankarlina Pandu Primadata Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
  • Slamet Rosyadi Universitas Jenderal Soedirman
  • Angus Ganjar Runtiko Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24197/st.1.2023.165-186

Keywords:

Tourism, Revenge Tourism, Overtourism, Social-psychology, Sustainability

Abstract

The tourism industry suffered a significant loss from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in line with decreasing the COVID-19 impacts, recent tourism behavior may be the cause of a phenomenon called as overtourism. The aim of this study was to investigate the unique phenomena of overtourism in Indonesia after the COVID-19 pandemic through a social pyschological approach. By using a critical discourse analysis, this study finds that a negative emotion generated by the COVID-19 pandemic has led to “revenge tourism” caused by two years of isolation. After the transmission effect of COVID-19 is decreasing, people who experience psychological breakdown, vent their tourism interests simultaneously, which in turn causing overtourism. In the perspective of psychology, negative emotion that has been piled up during lockdown may be the reason of overtourism. Meanwhile, overtourism also has negative social impact. From social-psychology perspective, place attachment is one of the basic needs in all human. When the control over their environment was disrupted, this may lead to many problems. Uncontrolled overtourism causes environmental damage and reducing the quality of tourism. Thus, this study suggests that the government and stakeholders collaborate to mitigate tourism disasters to prevent the threat of overtourism to tourism sustainability.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Muhammad Yamin, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

 

 

References

Abdullah, M. N. A. (2021). Revenge tourism: Trend or impact post-pandemic Covid-19? In Promoting Creative Tourism: Current Issues in Tourism Research. Routledge.

Adikari, A., Nawaratne, R., Silva, D. D., Ranasinghe, S., Alahakoon, O., & Alahakoon, D. (2021). Emotions of COVID-19: Content Analysis of Self-Reported Information Using Artificial Intelligence. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 23(4), e27341. https://doi.org/10.2196/27341

Andereck, K. L. (1997). Territorial functioning in a tourism setting. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(3), 706–720.

Andy, H. (2020, June 18). Overtourism dan Solusinya. https://Eticon.Co.Id/Overtourism-Dan-Solusinya/.

Annur, C. M. (2022). Kunjungan Wisatawan Asing ke Indonesia Naik Lagi Pada Agustus 2022. Databoks.Katadata.Co.Id.

Arias-Sans, A., & Russo, A. P. (2016). The right to Gaudí: What can we learn from the commoning of Park Güell, Barcelona? In Protest and resistance in the tourist city (pp. 261–277). Routledge.

Asmundson, G. J. G., Abramowitz, J. S., Richter, A. A., & Whedon, M. (2010). Health Anxiety: Current Perspectives and Future Directions. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12(4), 306–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-010-0123-9

Asmundson, G. J. G., & Taylor, S. (2020a). Coronaphobia: Fear and the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 70, 102196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102196

Asmundson, G. J. G., & Taylor, S. (2020b). How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 71, 102211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102211

Atmojo, M. E., & Fridayani, H. D. (2021). An Assessment of Covid-19 Pandemic Impact on Indonesian Tourism Sector. Journal of Governance and Public Policy, 8(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.18196/jgpp.811338

Bol, D., Giani, M., Blais, A., & Loewen, P. (2021). The effect of COVID‐19 lockdowns on political support: Some good news for democracy? - BOL - 2021—European Journal of Political Research—Wiley Online Library. https://ejpr.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1475-6765.12401

Brehm, J. W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance.

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (2017). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Interpersonal Development, 57–89.

Capocchi, A., Vallone, C., Pierotti, M., & Amaduzzi, A. (2019). Overtourism: A Literature Review to Assess Implications and Future Perspectives. Sustainability, 11(12), 3303. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123303

Capocchi, A., Vallone, C., Pierotti, M., & Andrea, A. (2019). Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Overtourism: A Literature Review to Assess Implications and Future Perspectives. https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/12/3303

Choudhary, D. N. (2021). REVENGE TRAVEL OR THE ROAD LESS TRAVELED? OPTING FOR A SUITABLE OPTION IN PANDEMIC TIMES. 8(3), 9.

Colomb, C., & Novy, J. (Eds.). (2016). Protest and resistance in the tourist city. Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business.

Consiglio, I., De Angelis, M., & Costabile, M. (2018). The effect of social density on word of mouth. Journal of Consumer Research, 45(3), 511–528.

Darmawan, F. (2019, September 2). Overtourism mengancam Indonesia, Apakah saja dampaknya? Https://Nationalgeographic.Grid.Id/Read/131838120/Overtourism-Mengancam-Indonesia-Apa-Sajakah-Dampaknya?Page=all.

Dodds, R., & Butler, R. (2019). Overtourism: Issues, realities and solutions (Vol. 1). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG.

Deb, S. K., & Nafi, S. M. (2020). IMPACT OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON TOURISM: RECOVERY PROPOSAL FOR FUTURE TOURISM. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 33(4spl), 1486–1492. https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.3

Devine-Wright, P. (2009). Rethinking NIMBYism: The role of place attachment and place identity in explaining place-protective action. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19(6), 426–441.

Eksposisinews.com. (2021, November 24). Pandemi Terkendali, Industri Pariwisata Optimis Sambut 2022. Https://Eksposisinews.Com/Pandemi-Terkendali-Industri-Pariwisata-Optimis-Sambut-2022.

Eriyanto. 2012. Analisis Isi: Pengantar Metodologi untuk Penelitian Ilmu Komunikasi dan Ilmu-Ilmu Sodial Lainnya. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Grup.

Fotiadis, A., Polyzos, S., & Huan, T.-C. T. C. (2021). The good, the bad and the ugly on COVID-19 tourism recovery. Annals of Tourism Research, 87, 103117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.103117

Füller, H., & Michel, B. (2014). ‘Stop Being a Tourist!’New Dynamics of Urban Tourism in B erlin-K reuzberg. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(4), 1304–1318.

Galea, S., Merchant, R. M., & Lurie, N. (2020). The Mental Health Consequences of COVID-19 and Physical Distancing: The Need for Prevention and Early Intervention. JAMA Internal Medicine, 180(6), 817–818. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.1562

Girish, V. G. (2021). COVID-19 pandemic and the emergence of revenge travel. International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 35(10), 125–129. https://doi.org/10.21298/IJTHR.2021.10.35.10.125

Goodwin, V. H. (2019). Overtourism: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment.

Gössling, S., McCabe, S., & Chen, N. (Chris). (2020). A socio-psychological conceptualisation of overtourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102976

Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2021). Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708

Gravari-Barbas, M., & Jacquot, S. (2016). No conflict? Discourses and management of tourism-related tensions in Paris. In Protest and resistance in the tourist city (pp. 45–65). Routledge.

Gretzel, U., Fuchs, M., Baggio, R., Hoepken, W., Law, R., Neidhardt, J., Pesonen, J., Zanker, M., & Xiang, Z. (2020). e-Tourism beyond COVID-19: a call for transformative research. Information Technology and Tourism, 22(2), 187–203. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40558-020-00181-3

Hall, C. M., Scott, D., & Gössling, S. (2020). Pandemics, transformations and tourism: Be careful what you wish for. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 577–598. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1759131

Hardy, A., Beeton, R. J. S., & Pearson, L. (2002). Sustainable Tourism: An Overview of the Concept and its Position in Relation to Conceptualisations of Tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 10(6).

Haywood, K. M. (2020). A post COVID-19 future - tourism re-imagined and re-enabled. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 599–609. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1762120

Hindley, A., & Font, X. (2018). Values and motivations in tourist perceptions of last-chance tourism—Ann Hindley, Xavier Font, 2018. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1467358415619674

Horas, J., & Purba, V. (2021). The Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on The Tourism Sector in Indonesia. RISET, 3(1), 389–401. https://doi.org/10.35212/riset.v3i1.82

Jacobsen, J. Kr. S., Iversen, N. M., & Hem, L. E. (2019). Hotspot crowding and over-tourism: Antecedents of destination attractiveness. Annals of Tourism Research, 76, 53–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2019.02.011

Jin, Y., Fraustino, J. D., & Liu, B. F. (2016). The Scared, the Outraged, and the Anxious: How Crisis Emotions, Involvement, and Demographics Predict Publics’ Conative Coping. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 10(4), 289–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/1553118X.2016.1160401

Jin, Y., Pang, A., & Cameron, G. T. (2012). Toward a Publics-Driven, Emotion-Based Conceptualization in Crisis Communication: Unearthing Dominant Emotions in Multi-Staged Testing of the Integrated Crisis Mapping (ICM) Model. Journal of Public Relations Research, 24(3), 266–298. https://doi.org/10.1080/1062726X.2012.676747

Jones, N., Thompson, R., Dunkel Schetter, C., & Silver, R. (2017). Distress and rumor exposure on social media during a campus lockdown | PNAS. https://www.pnas.org/doi/abs/10.1073/pnas.1708518114

Juhanda, Fulka, I. A. R., Faozen, & Jatmiko, H. (2022). Recovery Strategies of Tourism Businesses in COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia. Jurnal Kepariwisataan: Destinasi, Hospitalitas Dan Perjalanan, 6(1), 44–52. https://doi.org/10.34013/jk.v6i1.462

Kemenkeu. (2022, May 9). Pemulihan Ekonomi Terus Menguat di Tengah Omicron dan Gejolak Geopolitik. Https://Fiskal.Kemenkeu.Go.Id/Publikasi/Siaran-Pers-Detil/390.

Kemenparekraf. (2020). Model dan Proses Verifikasi dan Setifikasi CHSE. In Kemenparekraf.

Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia. (2022, November 9). Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Nasional Triwulan III-2022 Sebesar 5,72%. Www.Kemenkeu.Go.Id/Informasi-Publik/Publikasi/Berita-Utama/Perekonomian-Indonesia-Triwulan-III-2022-5,7.

Koens, K., Postma, A., & Papp, B. (2018). Is Overtourism Overused? Understanding the Impact of Tourism in a City Context. Sustainability, 10(12), Article 12. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124384

Lew, A. A. (2011). Tourism’s role in the global economy. Tourism Geographies, 13(1), 148–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2010.531046

Lokaldata.beritatagar.id. (2020). Kontribusi pariwisata terhadap PDB, 2010-2019.

Machleit, K. A., Eroglu, S. A., & Mantel, S. P. (2000). Perceived Retail Crowding and Shopping Satisfaction: What Modifies This Relationship? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9(1), 29–42. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327663jcp0901_3

Mardian, E. (2022, June 9). Opini: Mitigasi Bencana Akibat Overtourism. Https://Ekonomi.Bisnis.Com/Read/20220609/12/1541632/Opini-Mitigasi-Bencana-Akibat-over-Tourism.

Maulana, I. (2022, July 11). Alarm Peringatan “overtourism.” Https://Travel.Kompas.Com/Read/2022/07/11/163122627/Alarm-Peringatan-Overtourism?Page=all.

McKercher, B., Wang, D., & Park, E. (2015). Social impacts as a function of place change. Annals of Tourism Research, 50, 52–66.

Milano, C., Novelli, M., & Cheer, J. M. (2019). Full article: Overtourism and Tourismphobia: A Journey Through Four Decades of Tourism Development, Planning and Local Concerns. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21568316.2019.1599604

Metaxas, T., & Folinas, S. (2020). Tourism: The Great Patient of Coronavirus COVID-2019. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.12069.24804

Milano, C. (2017). Overtourism and Tourismphobia: Global trends and local contexts.

Moleong, Lexy J. 2014. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif Edisi Revisi. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.

Mutiah, D. (2020). Sektor Pariwisata Nyaris Tumbang Akibat Corona Covid-19, Menparekraf Masih Siapkan Solusi. Www.Liputan6.Com. https://www.liputan6.com/lifestyle/read/4209455/sektor-pariwisata-nyaris-tumbang-akibat-corona-covid-19-menparekraf-masih-siapkan-solusi

Namberger, P., Jackisch, S., Schmude, J., & Karl, M. (2019). Overcrowding, Overtourism and Local Level Disturbance: How Much Can Munich Handle? Tourism Planning & Development, 16(4), 452–472. https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2019.1595706

Navarro Jurado, E., Damian, I. M., & Fernández-Morales, A. (2013). CARRYING CAPACITY MODEL APPLIED IN COASTAL DESTINATIONS. Annals of Tourism Research, 43, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.03.005

Neuts, B., & Nijkamp, P. (2012). Tourist crowding perception and acceptability in cities: An Applied Modelling Study on Bruges. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(4), 2133–2153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2012.07.016

Novy, J. (2016). The selling (out) of Berlin and the de-and re-politicization of urban tourism in Europe’s ‘Capital of Cool.’ In Protest and resistance in the tourist city (pp. 66–86). Routledge.

Ocbcnisp.com. (2022, July 26). Fenomena Revenge Travel, Perjalanan Balas Dendam Usai Pandemi. Https://Www.Ocbcnisp.Com/Id/Article/2022/07/26/Revenge-Travel-Adalah.

Ollivaud, P., & Haxton, P. (2019). Making the Most of Tourism in Indonesia to Promote Sustainable Regional Development. www.oecd.org/eco/workingpapers.

Paludi, S. (2022). Equilibrium: Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan dan Ekonomi SETAHUN PANDEMI COVID-19 DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP INDUSTRI PARIWISATA INDONESIA. 19, 1. https://journal.uniku.ac.id/index.php/Equilibrium

Panzer-Krause, S. (2022). Rural Tourism in and after the COVID-19 Era: “Revenge Travel” or Chance for a Degrowth-Oriented Restart? Cases from Ireland and Germany. Tourism and Hospitality, 3(2), 399–415. https://doi.org/10.3390/tourhosp3020026

Rahman, M. K., Gazi, Md. A. I., Bhuiyan, M. A., & Rahaman, Md. A. (2021). Effect of Covid-19 pandemic on tourist travel risk and management perceptions. PLOS ONE, 16(9), e0256486. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256486

Ramkissoon, H., Smith, L. D. G., & Weiler, B. (2013). Testing the dimensionality of place attachment and its relationships with place satisfaction and pro-environmental behaviours: A structural equation modelling approach. Tourism Management, 36, 552–566.

Revindo, M. D., Sabrina, S., & Sowwam, M. (2020). Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 terhadap Pariwisata Indonesia: Tantangan, Outlook dan Respon Kebijakan Briefing Note.

Richard, E., & Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social exchange theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2(1), 335–362.

Rosyidie, A. (20014). Aspek Kebencanaan Pada Kawasan Wisata. Jurnal Perencanaan Wilayah Dan Kota, 15(2), 48–64.

Saputra, M. I. (2021, September 7). Rupa “overtourism” di Destinasi Wisata Indonesia. Https://Telusuri.Id/Rupa-Overtourism-Di-Destinasi-Wisata-Indonesia/.

Sari, D. I. (2022, June 4). 5 Destinasi Super Prioritas di Indonesia, ada surga tersembunyi yang indah . Https://Travel.Kompas.Com/Read/2022/06/04/190700027/5-Destinasi-Super-Prioritas-Indonesia-Ada-Surga-Tersembunyi-Yang-Indah?Page=all.

Sarwono, Jonathan. 2011. Metode Penelitian (Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif). Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Sæþórsdóttir, A. D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Visitor satisfaction in wilderness in times of overtourism: A longitudinal study: Journal of Sustainable Tourism: Vol 29, No 1. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09669582.2020.1817050

Schmidt, D. E., & Keating, J. P. (1979). Human crowding and personal control: An integration of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 86(4), 680.

Seraphin, H., Sheeran, P., & Pilato, M. (2018). Over-tourism and the fall of Venice as a destination. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 9, 374–376.

Skinner, E. A. (1996). A guide to constructs of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(3), 549.

Stamu-O’Brien, C., Simona, C., Halvorsen, E., & Jafferany, M. (2020). Psychological aspects of COVID‐19—Stamu‐O’Brien—2020—Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology—Wiley Online Library. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jocd.13601

Stokols, D. (1972). On the distinction between density and crowding: Some implications for future research. Psychological Review, 79(3), 275.

Sudjana, A. A., Aini, S. N., & Nizar, H. K. (2021). Revenge Tourism: Analisis Minat Wisatawan Pasca Pandemi COVID-19. Pringgitan, 2(1), 1–10.

Sulaeman. (2022, June 22). Tolak Kenaikan Tarif Candi Borobudur Rp750.000, YLKI Usulkan Penjualan Tiket Online. Https://Www.Merdeka.Com/Peristiwa/Tolak-Kenaikan-Tarif-Candi-Borobudur-Rp750000-Ylki-Usulkan-Penjualan-Tiket-Online.Html.

Surwandono, & Yanuar, M. D. (2021). The risk of mainstreaming economic growth and tourism on preventing Covid-19 in Indonesia. Sociologia y Tecnociencia, 11(2), 94–114. https://doi.org/10.24197/st.2.2021.94-114

Tinggi, S. S. (2021). ANALISIS DAMPAK COVID 19 TERHADAP PENERBANGAN DI INDONESIA.

Torales, J., O’Higgins, M., Castaldelli-Maia, J. M., & Ventriglio, A. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health—Julio Torales, Marcelo O’Higgins, João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Antonio Ventriglio, 2020. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0020764020915212

UNWTO. (2018). ‘Overtourism’? – Understanding and Managing Urban Tourism Growth beyond Perceptions, Executive Summary. In ‘Overtourism’? – Understanding and Managing Urban Tourism Growth beyond Perceptions, Executive Summary. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284420070

Vagena, A. (2021). OVERTOURISM: Definition and Impact. Academia Letters. https://doi.org/10.20935/al1207

Vianello, M. (2016). The No Grandi Navi campaign: Protests against cruise tourism in Venice. In Protest and resistance in the tourist city (pp. 185–204). Routledge.

Winurini, S. (2021). A Brief Study of Actual and Strategic Issues Revenge Travel Phenomenon: Opportunities and Risk.

Yamin, M., Darmawan A., & Rosyadi S. (2021). Analysis of Indonesian Tourism Potential Through the Sustainable Tourism Perspective in the New Normal Era. Jurnal Hubungan Internasional p.44-58. https://journal.umy.ac.id/index.php/jhi/article/view/10500.

Downloads

Published

01/03/2023

How to Cite

Yamin, M., Kamal, I., Primadata, A. P., Rosyadi, S., & Runtiko, A. G. (2023). Overtourism in Indonesia after the COVID-19 Pandemic: Social Psychology Perspective. Sociología Y Tecnociencia, 13(1), 165–186. https://doi.org/10.24197/st.1.2023.165-186