Sociology and Technoscience <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>SOCIOLOGY AND TECHNOSCIENCE</em> (E-ISSN 1989-8487)</strong>. <em>Sociología y tecnociencia</em> [third season] is a journal sponsored by the Universidad de Valladolid. It basic purpose is to fill a critical gap in Sociology. The central aim of the journal Sociology and Technoscience is to study, understand and analyze the social influence of the various scientific and technological or technoscientific activities (especially Sociology of Health and Sociology of Science and Technology).&nbsp;Sociology and Technoscience has a biannual periodicity and it follows the usual mechanisms of the academic journals.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>CALL FOR PAPERS (july &nbsp;2022 ) (go to announcements)</strong></p> <p>Monograph:&nbsp;<strong>Science, society, technological and communicational transformations.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;CALL FOR PAPERS (January 2022 ) (go to announcements)</strong></p> <p>Monograph:&nbsp;<strong>Challenges and defiances of gender violence and new technologies</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ediciones Universidad de Valladolid en-US Sociology and Technoscience 1989-8487 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Licencia de Creative Commons"></a></p> <p><strong>Sociología y tecnociencia</strong>&nbsp;is licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Reconocimiento-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional License</a>.</p> <p>The journal allows the authors to retain publishing rights. Authors may reprint their articles in other media without having to request authorization, provided they indicate that the article was originally published in <em>Sociología y tecnociencia</em>.</p> Estimation of the propagation factor R0 of the COVID-19 using the Kermack-McKendrick model <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>The SIR epidemic model is useful to measure the speed of spread of the COVID-19 infection in terms of the epidemiological threshold R0 over time. An ordinary differential mathematical model was developed to measure the behavior of COVID-19 in Peru, based on the experience in the control of Kermack – McKendrick infections. The rate of infected β and of recovered or eliminated γ was also estimated, using the official data sets of the World Health Organization, starting from the historical between March 07 and September 24, 2020 and; projected until October 28, 2021. Explaining that the lowest rate of infected will occur from June 30, 2021 β = 0.24. Evidence of an eradication prognosis for October 28, 2021 with a rate of infected (β = 0.21) and threshold (R0 = 0.03), in addition the accuracy of the model was quantified in 93.012%, with a 6.988% error COVID-19 mitigation mean percentage, with the temporal average value being R0 &lt;1, so each person who contracts the disease will infect less than one person before dying or recovering, so the outbreak will disappear.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> infected, recovered, spread, mitigation, epidemiological threshold.</p> Carmen Milagro Viña Josefrank Pernalete Lugo Copyright (c) 2022 Carmen Milagro Viña, Jose Frank Pernalete Lugo 2022-06-09 2022-06-09 12 1 257 272 10.24197/st.1.2022.257-272 Bridging the qualitative-quantitative divide in knowledge transfer studies: the use of QCA in the exploration of university-industry relationships <p>This article uses Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to study knowledge-transfer processes that are difficult to observe due to the absence of standardized data sources. It examines university–industry relationships and focuses on firms’ chances of developing R&amp;D projects and services within a local innovation system. The article makes methodological and substantive contributions. First, micro- and meso-level qualitative approaches move towards the tradition of quantitative studies on science through a process that illustrates the construction of quantifiable dimensions and their possibilities of analysis. Second, analysis reveals the conditioning factors that influence non-R&amp;D-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) into using university knowledge. The conclusions highlight the possibilities of this methodology’s cross-fertilization with other approaches in the empirical study of science and innovation.</p> M. Isabel Sánchez-Rodríguez Manuel Fernámdez-Esquinas José Antonio Pedraza-Rodriguez Rocío Muñoz-Benito Copyright (c) 2022 M. Isabel Sánchez-Rodríguez, Manuel Fernámdez-Esquinas, José Antonio Pedraza-Rodriguez, Rocío Muñoz-Benito 2022-02-17 2022-02-17 12 1 154 186 10.24197/st.1.2022.154-186 La Comunidad virtual y su actor político: el hashtag #NoALaReeleccion en las elecciones panameñas de 2019 <p>The general objective of the research is to characterize the groups that mobilized during the 2019 Panamanian elections around the hashtag #NoALaReelección. The conceptual framework articulates the theoretical developments of political sociology with the study of digital social networks. In addition to the classic bibliographic review, the qualitative-quantitative proposal of the research is exploratory and descriptive. Among the main findings, it stands out that there were five big clusters that guided the digital conversation, although with little interaction between them; that the hashtag was the virtual manifestation of a political actor, and not a casual, spontaneous and disorganized expression; and that the type of anti-corruption movement that was generated is consistent with the type “top-down”.</p> Harry Brown Marina Acosta Copyright (c) 2022 Harry Brown, Marina Acosta 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 187 215 10.24197/st.1.2022.187-215 Hate crimes. Incidence of the COVID pandemic on hate crimes in Spain. <p>A hate crime is any criminal act in which the offender is motivated, in whole or in part, by social prejudice against a particular group. &nbsp;Threatening contextual conditions that are adverse, such as COVID-19 today, can foster prejudice and discrimination towards other people who are part of minorities or disadvantaged groups. The objective of this work is to analyze the evolution of hate crime from 2014 to the present in the field of changes that occurred and seeks, through comparative and statistical study, to see the evolution of the crime and crime rate specifically in crimes of hate. &nbsp;Documentation published between 2014-2021 was compiled using the Scielo, Dialnet, and Redalyc databases. It is concluded that hate crimes during the 2014-2020 period have had an upward trend, with the exception of 2020, whose decline may be influenced by Covid-19 that merited confinement.</p> Serafín Giraldo Pérez Copyright (c) 2022 Serafín Giraldo Pérez 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 216 240 10.24197/st.1.2022.216-240 Español <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>In an ulterior vision, the human being will you be able to reflect on all the scientific and technological advances? Will be able to apply it correctly or will it turn against humanity? Here we must unfailingly approach the ethical and moral values that colour the progress of science. Various epistemologists and philosophers have shared manuscripts on the growth of knowledge in multiples scientific areas and the ethics with which they are applied. This work tries to produce a reflection on how the human being in function of the society in which it exists, is able to make a thought over and mature the changes associated with science and technology based on the elements that were given to him in the community where their cognitive development occurred. Understand the way in which humans apply science and perform technological advances that improve the quality of life and to explore new worlds of knowledge</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Maria Clarisbel Lucchetta Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Clarisbel Lucchetta 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 241 256 10.24197/st.1.2022.241-256 White and Cold as The North Pole and The South Pole: Human Beings and Robots <p>This is a work where two scientists take us into the world of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, this reality that traces our futuristic literary culture with our most immediate present to create solutions and raise unavoidable ethical questions. Carme Torras Genís, works at the Institute of Robotics and Industrial Computing (CSIC-UPC) where she is a research professor. She is a veteran mathematician and doctor in computer science who designs robots on a daily basis, responding to the demand of other research teams or organizations that need to use them as tools to interact with people with special needs. From the informative side of her, she is a leading science fiction novelist; Her books raise interesting ethical dilemmas related to the incorporation of artificially intelligent entities in contemporary society. Lydia Delicado-Moratalla, is a young but no less expert researcher. She is a geographer, Doctor in Interdisciplinary Gender Studies from the University of Alicante, with her research she has gone from the analysis of the sexuality of black women to the current models of prostitution and pornography through humanoid robots. Her line of work revolves around the people who build and promote these AIs for profit, debating the impact it has on women as social elements of interpretation and value construction.</p> Carme Torras Genís Lydia Delicado Moratalla Copyright (c) 2022 Carme Torras Genís, Lydia Delicado Moratalla 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 257 275 10.24197/st.1.2022.257-275 Introduction <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Women's Studies, Feminists and Gender Studies have raised relevant theoretical contributions to scientific knowledge, that are essential to understand the surrounding reality. Among the most important contributions is the consolidation of the gender category and feminist epistemology as a way for a more inclusive and less segregationist science. An essential analysis tool to understand the processes of inequality between men and women, and the development of a critical point of view that questions the traditional and androcentric perspective of scientific knowledge.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Rosa San Segundo Celia López Ongil Copyright (c) 2022 Rosa San Segundo, Celia López Ongil 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 i xi 10.24197/st.1.2022.i-xi EMPATIA-CM: Comprehensive Protection of Gender-based Violence Victims through Multimodal Affective Computing <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>The EMPATIACM project begins in January 2019, executed by a multidisciplinary team formed by the Institute of Gender Studies in Universidad Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M-IEG, with research staff from several branches of the Social Sciences and Humanities) and by the UC3M-TEC group (formed in turn by research personnel from several branches of Engineering), with the&nbsp; fundamental objective&nbsp; of&nbsp;&nbsp; understanding the reactions of victims of Gender-based Violence (GBV) to dangerous situations, generate mechanisms for automatic detection of these situations and study how to react in a comprehensive, coordinated and effective way to protect them in the best possible way. This objective is divided into six sub-objectives, which demonstrate the need and added value of the multidisciplinary approach.</p> <p>EMPATIA combines cyberphysical systems and affective computing proposing a comprehensive protocol that improves the protection of victims of gender violence with a solution capable of automatically, immediately and remotely warning of risk situations.</p> <p>Close to the end of the project, it is time to assess the work done and the results achieved, presenting the contributions in each of the sub-objectives raised in the project proposal.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Rosa San Segundo Celia López Ongil Copyright (c) 2022 Rosa San Segundo, Celia López Ongil 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 1 33 10.24197/st.1.2022.1-33 Gender perspective in technological development: about EMPATÍA-CM Project <p>This article critically addresses the androcentric construction of knowledge and technology. Here is arisen the need to introduce the gender perspective in both fields, from the framework of feminist epistemology.</p> <p>It also describes the implementation of this perspective throughout the EMPATIA-CM Project as a means to build new relationships between non-hegemonic identities and new technologies.</p> <p>This project, led by the UC3MSafety Team of the Carlos III University of Madrid, aims to develop a system capable of detecting risk situations for women victims of Gender Violence, through the identification of emotional reactions.</p> Eva Martínez Rubio Bárbara Alboreca Fernández-Barredo Copyright (c) 2022 Eva Martínez Rubio, Bárbara Alboreca Fenández-Barredo 2022-02-18 2022-02-18 12 1 34 55 10.24197/st.1.2022.34-55 Use of Technological Devices and (Re)victimization in Gender-based Crimes in Spain: A Qualitative Study on Professionals’ Perceptions <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>In Spain, compliance with protection orders in gender-based violence crimes are sometimes monitored with electronic devices. The objective of this paper is to analyze the use of electronic devices from the perspective of professionals involved in the assistance of victims. &nbsp;Method: We have carried out in-depth interviews with professionals in the gender-based violence sector in the region of Madrid. In particular, 59 workers (n=59), such as lawyers, social workers, psychologist, police officers, etc., have been interviewed. Results:&nbsp; From the perspective of the professionals electronic devices do not contribute to the well-being of the victims, but revictimizes survivors who wear the device. Moreover, these devices might be counterproductive because they could reduce the fear of crime but does not decrease real vulnerability.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Clara Sainz de Baranda Andujar Irene De Lamo Velado Patricia Nieto Rojas Copyright (c) 2022 Clara Sainz de Baranda Andujar, Irene De Lamo Velado , Patricia Nieto Rojas 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 56 72 10.24197/st.1.2022.56-72 Communicating advances in technology and robotics: a gender issue <p>This paper is aimed at exploring from an intersectional gender perspective the evolution of Spanish media discourse in science and technology news. An intersectional feminist qualitative analysis is made of a sample of science and technology articles published in 2020 and 2021 in the digital editions of El País, El Mundo, and La Vanguardia, to identify and study the stereotypes and patterns of gender representation and explain the underlying power relations (Cucklanz, 2016). The main findings point out that the language with which technological progress is reported is still masculine: the generic masculine continues to be used in the wording and also in the images; it is found also that the future constructed by much of this information is still loaded with marked stereotypes of femininity; in contrast, we found some other news that offer female referents who a few years ago were not interviewed in the media as experts in science and technology. We conclude the necessity of gender mainstreaming training for journalism and communication professionals, designers of these technologies and managers of their diffusion. A social debate and ethical and political reflection are needed regarding the effects, not exclusively gender-related, of the new human-machine relations.</p> Yanna G. Franco Isabel Tajahuerce-Ángel Copyright (c) 2022 Yanna G. Franco, Isabel Tajahuerce-Ángel 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 73 92 10.24197/st.1.2022.73-92 Difference in academic-scientific productivity from a gender perspective after COVID-19 using a simulation model <p>: &nbsp;&nbsp;This article aims to simulate academic-scientific productivity in terms of submitted and published articles, carry out research projects and editorial processes, from the gender perspective after COVID-19, for researchers in the 2020-2025 period. The research methodology was focused on System Dynamics as the main technique for modelling and simulation. The parameters used for the generic model were those provided by the Colombian Ministry of Science, Technology, and Innovation for a research group in the Social Sciences area. The dynamic hypotheses and the two simulated scenarios revealed gender differences and their intensification in the production of manuscripts, submitted articles for evaluation for publication purposes, and published articles over a 5-year horizon.</p> Sandra Patricia Barragán Moreno Alfredo Guzmán Rincón Copyright (c) 2022 Sandra Patricia Barragán Moreno , Alfredo Guzmán Rincón 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 93 111 Assessment of the telematic systems for the prevention of gender violence by the professionals who care for victims of gender violence <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>The article aims to know the assessment made by the professionals of the Municipal Points of Attention to Women Victims of Gender Violence of the Community of Madrid on the usefulness of telematic monitoring systems for the protection of women victims of gender violence.</p> <p>The methodology used is qualitative through the conduct of 34 interviews with 59 of these professionals. Two types of discourses have been found: one focused on security and the other on prevention. Each one makes a different assessment of these telematic systems.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Begoña Marugán Pintos Copyright (c) 2022 Begoña Marugán Pintos 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 112 135 10.24197/st.1.2022.112-135 Gender and patents <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>The objective of this article is to present the state of the art on gender studies in patents. In the introduction, we detail the interest of this review and give some brief notes on the nature of patent systems. Next, a series of investigations are listed, especially in its theoretical aspect, first in relation to the problem of gender gaps in patents and, later, on the problem of gender biases. The second and third chapters are dedicated to this, respectively. Next, some lines of research that may be of future interest, forgotten or barely covered in the bibliography reviewed, are proposed. Finally, we conclude with half a dozen conclusions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Benedicto Acosta Díaz Copyright (c) 2022 BENEDICTO ACOSTA DÍAZ 2022-02-11 2022-02-11 12 1 135 153 10.24197/st.1.2022.135-153