La enseñanza y el entrenamiento deportivo desde un enfoque «Constraint-Led». ¿Puede el retorno al futuro afrontar la idea de que «para jugar, lo primero son los fundamentos»?

Resumen

A pesar de la popularidad de los Enfoques Centrados en el Juego entre los académicos de educación superior, su aceptación por los enseñantes de niveles inferiores ha sido limitada. En un reciente sondeo llevado a cabo entre los estudiantes que iniciaban sus estudios de Salud y Educación Física en nuestra universidad, el 95% indicó que la EF recibida en su escolaridad había sido predominantemente tradicional. Este dato coincide con la respuesta habitual que nos encontramos cuando trabajamos con los enseñantes; éstos defienden la necesidad de que los jugadores adquieran los fundamentos antes de jugar a cualquier deporte. En este artículo, presentamos conceptos y modelos prácticos de enseñanza y entrenamiento deportivo basados en el Enfoque Basado-en-Condicionantes/Limitadores (Constraint-Led Approach –CLA–). Mostraremos que la adopción de este enfoque proporciona a los enseñantes herramientas que les permiten abordar dicho obstáculo, a la vez que incrementa las posibilidades de que adopten enfoques centrados-en-el-juego. Sostendremos que la dicotomía técnica-táctica es un marco inútil porque las intenciones y acciones de los aprendices son una función de sus capacidades para la acción. Sin embargo, explicaremos también que los enseñantes que siguen el enfoque basado-en-el-juego necesitan llevar a cabo prácticas pedagógicas en las que inicialmente desarrollen la coordinación intra-ambiente (i. e., cómo se organizan los equipos para resolver problemas basados-en-el-juego). Un punto clave será la necesidad de considerar la reciprocidad entre individuo y entorno, y el modo en que los juegos del patio y de la calle, aliados con los métodos CLA, pueden ayudar al enseñante a diseñar mejores programas basados-en-el-juego, que respondan a las necesidades de todos los jugadores, cualquiera que sea su edad o nivel de habilidad.

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Publicado
25/05/2018
Cómo citar
RENSHAW, Ian; MOY, Brendan. La enseñanza y el entrenamiento deportivo desde un enfoque «Constraint-Led». ¿Puede el retorno al futuro afrontar la idea de que «para jugar, lo primero son los fundamentos»?. Ágora para la Educación Física y el Deporte, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 1, p. 1-26, may 2018. ISSN 1989-7200. Disponible en: <https://revistas.uva.es/index.php/agora/article/view/2050>. Fecha de acceso: 21 june 2018 doi: https://doi.org/10.24197/aefd.1.2018.1-26.
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