The rule of law conditionality. Opportunities and challenges


  • Dimitris Liakopoulos various Univerisities in US and Europe


Palabras clave:

art. 2TEU, art. 7TEU, art. 19TEU, art. 47CFREU, rule of law, European integration, CJEU, financial conditionality, illiberal democracy.


This paper seeks to analyze the rule of law in the Polish case in recent years and above all to lead to a first analysis of the conclusions of the Advocate General of 2 December 2021 which rejected the appeals of Poland and Hungary against the conditionality regime for protection of the Union budget in the event of a breach of the rule of law.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Armstrong, K.A. (2019), The right to revoke an EU withdrawal notification: Putting the bullet back in the article 50 Chamber?, in Cambridge Law Journal, 78 (1), pp. 36ss.

Berry, E., Homewood. M .J., Bogusz B. (2019), Complete EU law: Text, cases and materials, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Birkinshaw, P.J. (2020), European public law: The achievement and the Brexit challenge, Kluwer Law International, New York.

Blanke, H.J., Mangiamelli, S. (2021), Treaty on the functioning of the European Union,. A commentary, ed. Springer.

Blauberger, M., Van Hüllen, V. (2021), Conditionality of EU funds: An instrument to enforce EU fundamental values?, in Journal of European Integration, 43 (1), pp. 5ss.

Bobek, M., Adams Prassl, J. (2020), The EU Charter of fundamental rights in the member States, Hart Publishing, Oxford & Oregon, Portland.

C-156/21, ECLI:EU:C:2021:974 and C/157/21, ECLI:EU:C:2021:978 of 2 December 2021.

C-216/18 PPU, Minister for Justice and Equality of 25 July 2018, ECLI:EU:C:2018:586, published in the electronic Reports of the cases, parr. 36, 48 and 50ss.

C-621/18, Wightman and others of 10 December 2018, ECLI:EU:C:2018:999, published in the electronic Reports of the cases, par. 63.

C-64/16, Associação Sindical dos Juízes Portugueses, of 27 February 2018, ECLI:EU:C:2018:117, published in the electronic Reports of the cases, parr. 1, 18, 27 and 29.

CJEU, C-418/18 Patrick Grégor Puppinck and others v. Poland of 19 December 2019, ECLI:EU:C:2019:1113, published in the electronic Reports of the cases, par. 64 C-896/19, Republika v. II-Prim Ministru of 20 April 2021, ECLI:EU:C:2021:311, not yet published.

CJEU, C-585/18, A.K (Indèpendance de la chambre disciplinaire de la Cour suprême) of 19 November 2019, ECLI:EU:C:2019:982, published in the electronic Reports of the cases.

CJEU, C-896/19, Conclusions of the Advocate General Hogan in case: Repubblika of 17 December 2020, ECLI:EU:C:2020:1055, parr. 28ss.

CJEU, C-896/19, Conclusions of the Advocate General Hogan in case: Repubblika of 17 December 2020, op. cit., par. 29.

CJEU, case: 352/85, Ireland v. Commission of the European Communities of 15 December 1987, par. 18, ECLI:EU:C:1987:546.

Csink, L. (2020), Rule of law in Hungary, in T. DRINÓCZI, A. BIEŃ-KACAŁA, Rule of law, common values and illiberal constitutionalism. Poland and Hungary withing the European Union, ed. Routledge, London, New York.

Da Cruz Vilaça. J.L. (2014), European Union law and integration. Twenty years of judicial application of European Union law, Hart Publishing, Oxford & Oregon, Portland.

Daminova, N. (2019), Rule of law vs. Poland and Hungary-an inconsistent approach?, in Hungarian Journal of Legal Studies, 60 (3), pp. 242ss.

De la Porte, C., Dagnis Jensen, M. (2021), The Next Generation EU: An analysis of the dimension of conflict behind the deal, in Social Policy Administration, 55.

Decheva, M. (2018), Recht der europäischen Union, ed. Nomos, Baden-Baden.

Drinóczi, T., Bien-Kacala, A. (2020), Illiberal constitutionalism and the European rule of law, in T. DRINÓCZI, A. BIEŃ-KACAŁA, Rule of law, common values and illiberal constitutionalism. Poland and Hungary withing the European Union, ed. Routledge, London.

ECLI:EU:C:2021:878, not yet published.

Elósegui, M., Miron, A., Motoc, I. (2021), The rule of law in Europe. Recent challenges and judicial responses, ed. Springer, Berlin.

EUCO 22/10 COEUR17 CONCL 8 of 11 December 2020.

Folsom, T.H. (2017), Principles of European Union law, including Brexit, West Academic, Minnesota.

Gajda-Roszcynialska K., Markiewicz, K. (2020), Disciplinary proceedings as an instrument for breaking the rule of law in Poland, in Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 12.

Geiger, R., Khan, D.E., Kotzur, M., (2016), EUV/AEUV, C.H. Beck, München.

Gerschewski, J. (2020), Erosion or decay? Conceptualizing causes and mechanisms of democratic regression, in Democratization, 28 (1), pp. 43ss

Jacoby, W., Hopkin, J. (2020), From lever to club? Conditionality in the European Union during the financial crisis, in Journal of European Public Policy, 8, pp. 1162ss.

Jarass, H.P. (2020), Charta der Grundrecht der Europäischen Union: GRCh, C.H. Beck, München.

Kellerbauer, M., Klamert, M., Tomkin, J., (2019), Commentary on the European Union treaties and the Charter of fundamental rights, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Kochenov, D. (2021), Article 7: A commentary on a much talked-about “dead” provision, in A. VON BOGDANDY, P. BOGDANOWICZ, I. CANOR, C. GRABENWARTER, M. TABOROWSKI, M. SCHIMDT (eds.), Defending checks and balances in EU Member States, Springer, Berlin, pp. 130-152.

Kocvenov, D., Bárd, P. (2020), The last soldier standing? Courts versus politicians and the rule of law crisis in the new Member States of the EU, in European Yearbook of Constitutional Law, 1, pp. 243ss.

Krajewski, M., Ziólkowski, M. (2020), EU judicial independence decentralized: A.K., in Common Market Law Review, 57 (4), pp. 1107-1138.

Leloup, M., Kochenov, D., Dimitrovs, A. (2021), Non-regression: Opening the door to solving the "Copenhagen dilemma"? All the eyes on case C-896/19 Repubblika v. Il-Prim Ministru, in RECONNECT Working Paper (Leuven), 15 (18), spec. 13.

Lenaerts, K. (2015), The Court of Justice as the guarantor of the rule of law within the European Union, in G. DE BAERE, J. WOUTERS, The contribution of international and supranational courts to the rule of law, Edward Elgar Publishers, Cheltenham, pp. 244ss.

Liakopoulos, D. (2019), European integration through member states' constitutional identity in EU law, ed. Maklu, Antwerp, Portland.

Liakopoulos, D. (2019), Respect of rule of law between "internal affairs" and the European Union. The case of Poland and Hungary as a political v. functional raison d'être, in Acta Universitatis Danubius. Relationes Internationales, 12 (2), 2019.

Mangas Martín, A. (2020), Tratado de la Unión Europea. Tratado de funcionamiento y otros actos básicos de la Unión Europea, Editorial Tecnos, Madrid, 2019.

Martinico, G., Simoncini, M. (2020), Wightman and the perils of Britain's withdrawal, in German Law Journal, 21, pp. 802ss.

Martucci, F. (2019), Droit de l'Union europèenne, LGDG, Paris.

Mlynarski, M. (2021), Zur Integration Staatlicher und europäischer Verfassungsidentität, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen.

Nicola F., Davies, B. (2017), European Union law stories, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Pech, L. (2009), The rule of law as a constitutional principle of the European Union, in Jean Monnet working paper, 04/09, pp. 14ss.

Pech, L. (2020), Article 7 TEU: From “nuclear option” to “sisyphean procedure”? in U. BELAVUSAU, A. GLISZCZYŃSKA-GRABIAS (eds), Constitutionalism under stress, Oxford University Press, pp. 157ss.

Pech, L., Scheppele, K.L. (2017), Illiberalism within: Rule of law backsliding in the EU, in Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies, 19.

Pech, L., Wachowiec, P., Mazur, D. (2021), Poland's rule of law breakdown: A five-years assesment of EU's (in) action, in Hague Journal on the Rule of Law, 13, pp. 10ss.

Pertek, J. (2021), Le renvoi prejudicie, ed. Larcier, Bruxelles.

Pignarre, P.E., (2021), La Cour de justice de l'Union europèenne juridiction constitutionelle, ed. Larcier, Bruxelles.

Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2020/2092 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2020 on a general regime of conditionality for the protection of the Union budget, OJ L 433I, 22.12.2020, p. 1-10.

Richard, A. (2021), Procedure en manquement d'État et protection des droits fondamentaux dans l'Union europèenne, ed. Larcier, Bruxelles.

Rule of law report. The rule of law situation in the European Union COM/2021/700 final of 20 July 2021.

Sadurski, W. (2019), Poland’s constitutional breakdown, Oxford University Press.

Scheppele, K.L., Vladimirovich Kochenov, D., Grabowska-Moroz, B. (2020), EU values are law, after all: Enforcing EU values through systemic infringement actions by the European Commission and the member States of the European Union, in Yearbook of European Law, 39, pp. 6ss.

Schiek, D. (2019), The ECJ's Wightman ruling, the “Brexit” process and the EU as a constitutional entity, in Frankfurter Newsletter zum Recht der Europäischen Recht (FIREU) of 07.01.2019.

Schroeder, W. (2021), SCHROEDER, The rule of law as a value in the sense of article 2TEU: What does it mean and imply?, in A. VON BOGDANDY, P. BOGDANOWICZ, I. CANOR; C. GRABENWARTER, M. TABOROWSKI, M. SCHMIDT (eds.), Defending checks and balances in EU Member States, ed. Springer, Berlin, pp. 108ss.

Schütze, R., Tridimas, T.S (2018), Oxford principles of European Union Law, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2018.

Schwarze, J., Becker, V., Hatje, A., Schoo, J. (2019), EU-Kommentar, ed. Nomos, Baden-Baden.

Spieker, L.D. (2021), Defending union values in judicial proceedings. On how to turn Article 2 TEU into a judicially applicable provision, in A. VON BOGDANDY, P. BOGDANOWICZ, I. CANOR, C. GRABENWARTER, M. TABOROWSKI, M. SCHMIDT (eds) Defending checks and balances in EU Member States. Beiträge zum ausländischen öffentlichen Recht und Völkerrecht (Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht), vol. 298. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Thiele, A. (2019), Zur Möglichkeit einer einseitigen Rücknahme der notifizierten Austrittsabsicht nech 50 Abs 2 EUV-zugleich Anmerkung zum Urteil des EuGH v. 10.12.2018, RS C-621/18, Wightman, in Europarecht 54 (2).

Tiniere, R., Vial, C. (2021), Les dix ans de la Charte des droits fondamentaux e l'Union europèenne, ed. Larcier, Bruxelles, 2020. S. PEERS et al. (eds.), The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, A Commentary, Hart Publishing, Nomos, C.H. Beck, Oxford & Oregon, Portland.

Usherwood, J., Pinder, S., (2018), The European Union. A very short introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Virseda Fernández, C. (2020), Unión europea, Editorial Aranzadi, Pamplona, 2020. A. HARATSCH, C. KOENIG, M. PECHSTEIN, Europarecht, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen.