Populismo e islam en el Líbano: el intento de usurpar la influencia sunita

Autores/as

  • Francisco Salvador Barroso Cortés Universidad Loyola

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24197/jstr.1.2023.16-37

Palabras clave:

Geosectarismo; Populismo; Influencia; Oriente Medio Islámico; Nación Islámica; Hezbolá; Líbano

Resumen

El artículo pretende explicar cómo el factor religioso dentro de la comunidad musulmana ha tomado un matiz claramente populista. Este tema no solo ha aumentado la polarización religioso-política del país, sino que ha posicionado a dicho país entre dos proyectos geopolíticos claramente antagónicos. De hecho, el incremento de la influencia iraní, a través de la posición hegemónica de Hezbolá, ha traído consigo un incremento en cuanto al nivel de tensión se refiere con relación a las comunidades sunita y drusa. Dicho aumento de la influencia de Irán ha puesto al Líbano ante un claro dilema entre el proyecto Chiita del ‘Oriente Medio Islámico’ y el proyecto Sunita de la ‘Nación Islámica’ (Yihadismo, Sharía y Califato) del que hasta ahora no ha sido capaz de encontrar una solución.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Ali, M. H. 2021. “The Politics of Perdition.” Carnegie Endowment Middle East Center, Beirut. Consulta 5 de diciembre de 2021(https://carnegie-mec.org/diwan/85761).

Cimini, Giulia and Tomé-Alonso, Beatriz. 2021. “Rethinking Islamist politics in North Africa: a multi-level analysis of domestic, regional and international dynamics.” Contemporary Politics 27 (2): 125-140.

Crombois, Jean. 2020. “Lilliput Effect Revisited: Small States and EU Foreign Policy.” European View 19(1): 80–87.

Fukuyama, F. 2018. Identity. The Demand for Dignity and The Politics of Resentment. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Haddad, S. 2021. “Le gouvernement Mikati entre tiraillements internes et développements externes.” L´ Orient Le Jour, Beirut. Consulta 27 de septiembre de 2021 (https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/1275305/le-gouvernement-mikati-entre-tiraillements-internes-et-developpements-externes.html).

Hanf, Theodor. 1995. “Ethnurgy: On the analytical use and abuse of ‘ethnic identity.” Pp.40-51. in Nationalism, Ethnicity and Cultural Identity in Europe, edited by K. Von Benda Beckmann. Utrecht: Utrecht University.

Hassan, M. 2019. “Sunni Lebanon: An “Oddity” at Risk.” Policy Analysis, Fikra Forum Washington Institute, Washington. Consulta 15 de diciembre de 2021 (https://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/sunni-lebanon-oddity-risk).

Khatib, L. 2021. “How Hezbollah holds sway over the Lebanese state.” Chatham House, London. Consulta 17 de enero de 2022 (https://www.chathamhouse.org/2021/06/how-hezbollah-holds-sway-over-lebanese-state/07-conclusion-will-hezbollah-take-over).

Holsti, K. J. 1970. “National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy.” International Studies Quarterly 14(3): 233- 309.

Karagiannis, E. 2018. The New Political Islam: Human Rights, Democracy, and Justice. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Keal, P. 1983. Unspoken Rules and Superpower Dominance. London: Macmillan.

Kechichian, J. A. 2020a. “Can Lebanon Be Saved? Only if Citizens Reinvent Their Society and Avoid a New Civil War.” Commentaries. King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies (KFCRIS), Riyadh. Consulta 17 de diciembre de 2021 (https://www.kfcris.com/en/view/post/290).

Kechichian, J. A. 2020b. “Partition Is the Only Solution to Lebanon’s Woes.” Foreign Policy, Washington. Consulta 17 de diciembre de 2021 (https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/09/18/partition-is-the-only-solution-to-lebanons-woes/).

Khalife, N. 2017. The Attempt to Uproot Sunni-Arab Influence. A Geo-Strategic Analysis of the Western, Israeli and Iranian Quest for Domination. Brighton: Sussex Academic Press.

Lacoste, Yves. 2008. “Le Monde Musulman et les Islamistes : Le Choc des Représentations Idéologiques.” Pp.302-315 en Géopolitique : La Longue Histoire d’aujourd’hui. Paris: Larousse.

Lasswell, Harold and Kaplan, Abraham. 1950. Power and Society. A Framework for Political Inquiry. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Lefèvre, R. 2014. “The Roots of Crisis in Northern Lebanon.”, Carnegie Middle East Center. Beirut. Consulta 10 de diciembre de 2021 (https://carnegie-mec.org/2014/04/15/roots-of-crisis-in-northern-lebanon-pub-55305).

Lijphart, A. 1977. Democracy in plural societies: A comparative exploration. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Long, Tom. 2017.“Small States, Great Power? Gaining Influence Through Intrinsic, Derivative, and Collective Power.” International Studies Review 19 (2): 185–205.

López Aranguren, E. 2021. El Populismo y la Ideología Populista. Madrid: Populista.

L´Orient Le Jour. 2022. “Aoun ne fixe pas de date pour le dialogue, mais maintient son invitation.” L´Orient Le Jour, Beirut. Consulta 14 de enero de 2022 (https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/1287440/aoun-ne-fixe-pas-de-date-pour-le-dialogue-mais-maintient-son-invitation.html).

Maalouf, M. 2015. Le Liban : de l'Etat inachevé à l'invention d'une nation. Paris: Editions L'Harmattan.

Milani, Abbas. 2016. “Iran’s Paradoxical Regime.” P. 58., in Authoritarianism goes Global. The Challenge to Democracy, edited by L. Diamond, M. F. Plattner and Ch. Walker. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Nagle, John. 2015. “Between entrenchment, reform and transformation: ethnicity and Lebanon’s consociation democracy.” Democratization 23 (7):1144-1161.

Nakhoul, S. and Perry, T. 2022. “Lebanon plan sees 93% currency slide, turns bulk of FX deposits to pounds.” Reuters. Consulta 21 de enero de 2022 (https://www.reuters.com/markets/rates-bonds/lebanon-plan-sees-93-currency-slide-turns-bulk-fx-deposits-pounds-2022-01-31/).

Noe, N. 2021. “Facing up to foreign influence: How outsiders helped create Lebanon´s current crises.” War on the Rocks. Consulta 15 de enero de 2022 (https://warontherocks.com/2021/12/facing-up-to-foreign-influence-how-outsiders-helped-create-lebanons-current-crisis/).

O´Connor, T. 2018. “Middle East's Next Oil War? Israel Threatens Lebanon Over Hezbollah and Natural Gas”. Newsweek. Consulta 17 de diciembre de 2021 (https://www.newsweek.com/next-middle-east-oil-war-israel-and-lebanon-threaten-spark-next-conflict-797668).

Ostas, Buket. 2020. “Islamic Populism: Promises and Limitations.” The Journal for Interdisciplinary Middle Eastern Studies 6 (2): 103-129.

Parlamento Europeo. 2022. “Situation in Lebanon Severe and prolonged economic depression.” European Parliamentary Research Service. Consulta 15 de abril de 2022 (https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2022/729369/EPRS_BRI(2022)729369_EN.pdf).

Rose, S. 2022. “Lebanon's Saad Hariri withdraws from politics.” The National News. Abu Dhabi. Consulta 25 de enero de 2022 (https://www.thenationalnews.com/mena/lebanon/2022/01/24/lebanons-saad-hariri-says-he-will-not-run-in-upcoming-elections/).

Salamey, Imad and Tabar, Paul. 2012. “Democratic transition and sectarian populism: the case of Lebanon.” Contemporary Arab Affairs 5 (4): 497-512.

Salamey, I. 2017. The Decline of Nation-States after the Arab Spring: The Rise of Communitocracy. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Shoemaker, Christopher. C., and Spanier, John. 1984. Patron-Client State Relationships. Multilateral Crises in the Nuclear Age. New York: Praeger.

Soltaninejad, Mohammad. 2019. “Coalition-Building in Iran’s Foreign Policy: Understanding the ‘Axis of Resistance.” Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 21(6): 716–731.

Veenendaal, Wouter P. 2017. “Analyzing the Foreign Policy of Microstates: The Relevance of the International Patron-Client Model.” Foreign Policy Analysis 13 (3): 561–577.

Vohra, A. 2020. “China Wants to Be Lebanon’s Savior.” Foreign Policy. Washington. Consulta 17 de diciembre de 2021(https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/07/09/china-wants-to-be-lebanons-savior/).

Yacoubian, M. 2021. “Lebanon: Assessing Political Paralysis, Economic Crisis and Challenges for U.S. Policy.” United States Institute of Peace, Washington. Consulta 9 de enero de 2022 ().

Young, M. 2022. “With Hariri out, there is an imbalance of power in Lebanon's Sunni community.” The National News. Abu Dhabi. Consulta 5 de febrero de 2022 (https://www.thenationalnews.com/opinion/comment/2022/02/01/with-hariri-out-there-is-an-imbalance-of-power-in-lebanons-sunni-community/)

Zimmerling, R. 2005. Influence and Power: Variations on a Messy Theme. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Descargas

Publicado

02/02/2023

Cómo citar

Barroso Cortés, F. S. (2023). Populismo e islam en el Líbano: el intento de usurpar la influencia sunita. Journal of the Sociology and Theory of Religion, 15(1), 16–37. https://doi.org/10.24197/jstr.1.2023.16-37